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Beyond borders: The refugee crisis from Lebanon to Europe

Beyond borders: The refugee crisis from Lebanon to Europe

There are more than 1 million refugees in Lebanon, which neighbours Syria and has - by far - the highest number refugees per capita in the world.
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There are more than 1 million refugees in Lebanon, which neighbours Syria and has - by far - the highest number refugees per capita in the world.
A camp in Lebanon's Bekaa valley being cleared after an eviction. The government bans the creation of official camps for refugees in Lebanon - a place that, for some, is the first stop on the long journey to Europe.
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A camp in Lebanon's Bekaa valley being cleared after an eviction. The government bans the creation of official camps for refugees in Lebanon - a place that, for some, is the first stop on the long journey to Europe.
Refugees living in an abandoned building in in north Lebanon. Most refugees have remained in Lebanon but those seeking to reach Europe often travel on to Turkey.
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Refugees living in an abandoned building in in north Lebanon. Most refugees have remained in Lebanon but those seeking to reach Europe often travel on to Turkey.
An abandoned UNHCR portaloo on a site that once hosted refugees in Lebanon. The refugees were evicted, as often happens, for what the army called reasons of national security.
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An abandoned UNHCR portaloo on a site that once hosted refugees in Lebanon. The refugees were evicted, as often happens, for what the army called reasons of national security.
Thousands of life jackets are gathered on the Greek island of Lesvos. Having arrived in Turkey, most refugees travelled to the coast and risked their lives crossing to the Greek islands as they sought to continue their journey into northern and western Europe. 
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Thousands of life jackets are gathered on the Greek island of Lesvos. Having arrived in Turkey, most refugees travelled to the coast and risked their lives crossing to the Greek islands as they sought to continue their journey into northern and western Europe.
A child walks away from his waterlogged tent in Vial camp, on the greek island of Chios. The EU-Turkey deal, signed in March 2016, trapped many refugees on the islands.
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A child walks away from his waterlogged tent in Vial camp, on the greek island of Chios. The EU-Turkey deal, signed in March 2016, trapped many refugees on the islands.
A refugee talks to a bus driver at Vial camp, Chios. The camp was previously a detention centre until refugees protested against conditions.
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A refugee talks to a bus driver at Vial camp, Chios. The camp was previously a detention centre until refugees protested against conditions.
A sign erected by refugees protesting at Souda camp, on the Greek island of Chios. Since the EU-Turkey deal in March 2016 tensions have flared between locals and refugees on the island.
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A sign erected by refugees protesting at Souda camp, on the Greek island of Chios. Since the EU-Turkey deal in March 2016 tensions have flared between locals and refugees on the island.
Athens' port of Piraeus, the first stop for many moving on from the Greek islands. Piraeus previously acted as an unofficial refugee camp as refugees sought to decide what next step to take to move on into the rest of Europe.
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Athens' port of Piraeus, the first stop for many moving on from the Greek islands. Piraeus previously acted as an unofficial refugee camp as refugees sought to decide what next step to take to move on into the rest of Europe.
A man prays at Athens' Piraeus port
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A man prays at Athens' Piraeus port
Refugees at Piraeus, Athens.
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Refugees at Piraeus, Athens.
Skaramagas refugee camp, just outside of Athens. The Greek government has built 46 camps across the government, of hugely varying quality. 
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Skaramagas refugee camp, just outside of Athens. The Greek government has built 46 camps across the government, of hugely varying quality.
Syrian Ammar Othman, second from left, and his family stay in a flat offered to them rent-free by Adonis Tsangouris (third from left). Various schemes have been set up help create private accommodation for refugees.
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Syrian Ammar Othman, second from left, and his family stay in a flat offered to them rent-free by Adonis Tsangouris (third from left). Various schemes have been set up help create private accommodation for refugees.
Families play in the corridors of City Plaza Hotel. The hotel, formerly empty, was squatted and then offered as a place to live for refugees. The squatting and anarchist movement, especially in Athens' Exarchia district, have played a key role in offering shelter.
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Families play in the corridors of City Plaza Hotel. The hotel, formerly empty, was squatted and then offered as a place to live for refugees. The squatting and anarchist movement, especially in Athens' Exarchia district, have played a key role in offering shelter.
Self defence classes take place in the Khora Centre in Exarchia, Athens. The centre was set up by volunteers to offer a range of services to refugees.
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Self defence classes take place in the Khora Centre in Exarchia, Athens. The centre was set up by volunteers to offer a range of services to refugees.
A young Iranian boy in a church, Athens, where a small Iranian Christian refugee exists. Some recently fled the country because of religious persecution, other converted upon arriving in Greece.
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A young Iranian boy in a church, Athens, where a small Iranian Christian refugee exists. Some recently fled the country because of religious persecution, other converted upon arriving in Greece.
Ritsona refugee camp, Greece. The camp is isolated, and at the time of visiting a hunger strike has just finished protesting against the slow progress of asylum applications.
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Ritsona refugee camp, Greece. The camp is isolated, and at the time of visiting a hunger strike has just finished protesting against the slow progress of asylum applications.
Schisto refugee camp, just outside Athens.
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Schisto refugee camp, just outside Athens.
Many of those seeking to reach the Balkan route, which would take them to the rest of Europe, passed through Idomeni, which lies on the border between Greece and Macedonia.
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Many of those seeking to reach the Balkan route, which would take them to the rest of Europe, passed through Idomeni, which lies on the border between Greece and Macedonia.
A man prepares food in Idomeni. Behind him lies the border with Macedonia. Once just a brief stopping point, Idomeni became a camp with well over 10,000 refugees after border controls tightened.
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A man prepares food in Idomeni. Behind him lies the border with Macedonia. Once just a brief stopping point, Idomeni became a camp with well over 10,000 refugees after border controls tightened.
A boy plays in Idomeni camp. With countries neighbouring Greece closing their borders in early 2016, many found themselves trapped in Greece.
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A boy plays in Idomeni camp. With countries neighbouring Greece closing their borders in early 2016, many found themselves trapped in Greece.
A man in the fields of Idomeni, Greece. Many did not want to get trapped in Greece, which remains in the depths of an economic crisis.
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A man in the fields of Idomeni, Greece. Many did not want to get trapped in Greece, which remains in the depths of an economic crisis.
Abandoned trains became homes to families in Idomeni, Greece.
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Abandoned trains became homes to families in Idomeni, Greece.
A barber gives a trim in Idomeni camp, Greece.
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A barber gives a trim in Idomeni camp, Greece.
Night in Idomeni camp, Greece.
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Night in Idomeni camp, Greece.
As the border crossing remained closed frustrations spiralled at Idomeni camp. The camp was eventually cleared in May 2016 and the borders stayed closed to refugees.
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As the border crossing remained closed frustrations spiralled at Idomeni camp. The camp was eventually cleared in May 2016 and the borders stayed closed to refugees.
The barracks, in the Serbian capital of Belgrade - a crossroads in the Balkan route. Despite border closures some made it through from Greece, while others came from Romania.
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The barracks, in the Serbian capital of Belgrade - a crossroads in the Balkan route. Despite border closures some made it through from Greece, while others came from Romania.
The barracks provided grim shelter for some refugees. Some, determined to go on, did not want to go to Serbian camps for fear of being detained.
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The barracks provided grim shelter for some refugees. Some, determined to go on, did not want to go to Serbian camps for fear of being detained.
With NGOs prevented from assisting in the barracks, volunteers stepped in.
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With NGOs prevented from assisting in the barracks, volunteers stepped in.
The barracks, Belgrade.
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The barracks, Belgrade.
Volunteers doling out food and drink in Belgrade's barracks.
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Volunteers doling out food and drink in Belgrade's barracks.
Many refugees met smugglers in the barracks as they planned their journey on to Hungary - where a tough border crossing awaited.
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Many refugees met smugglers in the barracks as they planned their journey on to Hungary - where a tough border crossing awaited.
An official camp in Serbia - where (at the time of visiting in February 2017) there were about 6,000 spaces in official camps for the 7,500-plus refugees in the country.
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An official camp in Serbia - where (at the time of visiting in February 2017) there were about 6,000 spaces in official camps for the 7,500-plus refugees in the country.
Refugees - mostly, Afghan and Pakistani - receive assistance from a volunteer group. Many have been living in an abandoned brick factory on the Serbian border with Hungary for weeks if not months. Many have repeatedly tried, and failed, to cross into Hungary. 
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Refugees - mostly, Afghan and Pakistani - receive assistance from a volunteer group. Many have been living in an abandoned brick factory on the Serbian border with Hungary for weeks if not months. Many have repeatedly tried, and failed, to cross into Hungary.
A Hungarian border patrol car, close to the border with Serbia. Hungary's Prime Minister Victor Orban has taken an increasingly tough stance against refugees.
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A Hungarian border patrol car, close to the border with Serbia. Hungary's Prime Minister Victor Orban has taken an increasingly tough stance against refugees.
A border guard checks stop-off point for refugees close to the border with Serbia. Like many others, as of February 2017 the country was expected to close its borders entirely to refugees.
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A border guard checks stop-off point for refugees close to the border with Serbia. Like many others, as of February 2017 the country was expected to close its borders entirely to refugees.
A Hungarian border guard shows off footage of refugees being detained having been caught crossing the border from Serbia. Reports brutality and violence inflicted against those caught making the journey are common.
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A Hungarian border guard shows off footage of refugees being detained having been caught crossing the border from Serbia. Reports brutality and violence inflicted against those caught making the journey are common.